The first to ever calculate the empirical molecular formula for a human being were American limnologists Robert Sterner and James Elser who in April of 2000 calculated the following 22-element empirical formula:

  H375,000,000O132,000,000C85,700,000N6,430,000Ca1,500,000
P1,020,000S206,000Na183,000K177,000Cl127,000
Mg40,000Si38,600Fe2,680Zn2,110Cu76I14Mn13
F13Cr7Se4Mo3Co1

Sterner and Elser published their results in the 2002 book Ecological Stoichiometry: the Biology of Elements from Molecules to the Biosphere.

The second to calculate the empirical molecular formula for a human being was American chemical engineer Libb Thims, who being unaware of the work of Sterner and Elser, in September of 2002 calculated the following 26-element empirical formula:

H2.5E9O9.7E8C4.9E8N4.7E7P9.0E6Ca8.9E6K2.0E6
Na1.9E6S1.6E6Cl1.3E6Mg3.0E5Fe5.5E4 
F5.4E4Zn1.2E4Si9.1E3Cu1.2E3B7.1E2Cr98Mn93
Ni87Se65Sn64I60Mo19Co17V


Thims published his results in the 2002 manuscript Human Thermodynamics (Volume One), in the 2005 IoHT (online) Molecular Evolution Table, and in the 2007 textbook Human Chemistry (Volume One).  For an average 70-kg human being, this empirical formula translates to the following human molecular formula:

CE27HE27OE27NE26PE25SE24CaE25KE24ClE24 NaE24MgE24FeE23FE23ZnE22SiE22CuE21BE21IE20 SnE20MnE20SeE20CrE20NiE20MoE19CoE19VE18

In shorthand, symbols are commonly used to signify the human molecule, such as Mx = male and Fy = female, or letter shorthand: ABABABC, etc. 








The Human Molecule
→ Formula
(March 6, 2008)

Cost: $9.95, 120-pages
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